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ABSTRACT

Background: The solid and liquid droplet present in air is called Particulate matter (PM) and the mass measure of Particulate Matteris called Total suspended particle (TSP). The respiratory symptoms refer to the self reported symptoms on respiratory problem that can lead to serious respiratory problem in future. The status of particulate pollution is supposed to be increased along with number of Respiratory symptoms. The present study was carried out to determine suspended particles and respirable particles of diameter less than 1 micrometers (PM1) on road side and some distance of outside from road; and to  compare the respiratory symptoms between traffic police men and shop keepers directly exposed to traffic fumes and office worker stay in 'protected' enclosed environment.

Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out. The data was collected through semi structured questionnaire after getting verbal informed consent form the participant. Convenience sampling of participant was done. Forty five Traffic police and Shopkeeper working on road side was allocated as case and forty five officials working in different locations were allocated as control. The collected data was stored in MS-Excel 2003 and analyzed. The data on PM and TSP was collected through instrument Haz-Dust EPM5000.

Results: The result showed that the air quality of road side traffic is unhealthy and there was increasing trends of respiratory illness in hospital outpatient department (OPD). The people who were exposed found to have more risk of developing respiratory diseases symptoms. The odd ratio (OR) for case and control for pain or tightness in chest was 9.8, for shortness of breath 9.5 and for irritation in respiratory tract it was 3.3.

Conclusions: The present study concluded that air quality in Kathmandu is unhealthy for normal breathing. People working on road side are of greater risk of developing respiratory diseases.

Key words: Heavy traffic cities; Kathmandu; Particulate pollution; respiratory symptoms

 

Download Full Paper: Particulate Pollution and Its Effect on Respiratory Symptoms of Exposed Personnel’s in Three Heavy Traffic Cities , Kathmandu

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